Workers involved in hoisting and rigging must exercise care when selecting and using slings. The selection of slings should be based upon the size and type of the load, and the environmental conditions of the workplace. Slings should be visually inspected before each use to ensure their effectiveness. Improper use of hoisting equipment, including slings, may result in overloading, excessive speed (e.g., taking up slack with a sudden jerk, shock loading), or sudden acceleration or deceleration of equipment.
Factors to consider when choosing the best sling for the job include size, weight, shape, temperature, and sensitivity of the material being moved, and the environmental conditions under which the sling will be used. The following guide may be useful in selecting the appropriate sling:
Alloy steel chains are strong and able to adapt to the shape of the load. Care should be taken when using chain slings because sudden shocks will damage them. This may result in sling failure and possible injury to workers or damage to the load.
Chain slings must be visually inspected prior to use. During the inspection, pay particular attention to any stretching, nicks, gouges, and wear in excess of the allowances made by the manufacturer. These signs indicate that the sling may be unsafe and must be removed from service immediately.
Wire rope is composed of individual wires that have been twisted to form strands. Strands are then twisted to form a wire rope. When wire rope has a fiber core, it is usually more flexible but less resistant to environmental damage. Conversely, wire rope with a core that is made of a wire rope strand tends to have greater strength and is more resistant to heat damage.
Strength – Strength of wire rope is a function of its size (e.g., diameter of the rope), grade, and construction, and must be sufficient to accommodate the maximum applied load.
Fatigue (Bending without Failure) – Fatigue failure of wire rope is caused by the development of small cracks during small radius bends. The best means for preventing fatigue failure of wire rope slings is to use blocking or padding to increase the bend radius.
Abrasive Wear – The ability of wire rope to withstand abrasion is determined by the size and number of the individual wires used to make up the rope. Smaller wires bend more readily and offer greater flexibility, but are less able to withstand abrasion. Larger wires are less flexible, but withstand abrasion better.
Abuse – Misuse or abuse of wire rope slings will result in their failure long before any other factor. Abuse can lead to serious structural damage, resulting in kinks or bird caging. (In bird caging, the wire rope strands are forcibly untwisted and become spread outwards.) To prevent injuries to workers and prolong the life of the sling, strictly adhered to safe and proper use of wire rope slings.
Wire rope slings must be visually inspected before use. Slings with excessive broken wires, severe corrosion, localized wear, damage to end-fittings (e.g., hooks, rings, links, or collars), or damage to the rope structure (e.g., kinks, bird caging, distortion) must be removed from service and discarded.
Fiber Rope and Synthetic Web
Fiber rope and synthetic web slings are used primarily for temporary work, such as construction or painting, and are the best choice for use on expensive loads, highly finished or fragile parts, and delicate equipment.
Fiber rope slings deteriorate on contact with acids and caustics and, therefore, must not be used around these substances. Fiber rope slings that exhibit cuts, gouges, worn surface areas, brittle or discolored fibers, melting, or charring must be discarded. A buildup of powder-like sawdust on the inside of a fiber rope indicates excessive internal wear and that the sling is unsafe. Finally, if the rope fibers separate easily when scratched with a fingernail, it indicates that the sling has suffered some kind of chemical damage and should be discarded.
Synthetic web slings are commonly made of nylon, polypropylene, or polyester and have the following properties in common:
Strength - Depending upon their size, synthetic web slings can handle loads of up to 300,000 pounds.
Convenience and Safety - Synthetic web slings adjust to the load contour and hold it with a tight, non-slip grip.
Load Protection - Unlike other sling materials, synthetic web is less likely to mar, deface, or scratch highly polished surfaces.
Shock Absorbency - Regardless of the construction material, shock loading (e.g., excessive speed, rapid acceleration or deceleration) of slings should be minimized. However, it should be noted that synthetic web slings can absorb heavy shocks without damage.
Temperature Resistance – The lifting capacity of synthetic web is unaffected by temperatures up to 180 degrees Fahrenheit.
Economy and Long Life – Synthetic web slings have a low initial cost and a long service life. They are unaffected by mildew, rot, or bacteria, resist some chemical action, and have excellent abrasion resistance.
Synthetic web slings must be inspected before use and should be removed from service if found to have acid or caustic burns, melting or charring of any part of the surface, snags, tears, or cuts, broken stitches, distorted fittings, or wear or elongation beyond the manufacturer’s specifications.